This page describes my post-processing of The Devil is an Ass by Ben Jonson, Edited with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary by William Savage Johnson, Ph.D., 1905.
This book was scanned by Google Books, archived at the Internet Archive, then proof-read and marked up by the Project Gutenberg Distributed Proofreaders in 2005–2007.
I can see why no-one has wanted to post-process it. The critical apparatus is massive and complex, there being no fewer than five different types of additional material (page numbers from the 1631 Folio; side notes from the 1631 Folio; variant readings; glosses; and end notes) to which must be added, for the Project Gutenberg edition, the page numbers from the 1905 edition. There are more than 3,000 internal cross-references, the majority of which become two links in the HTML (more than 5,600 links altogether).
Because of the density of reference, I ended up adding an anchor to all 3,230 lines of the play—this seemed easier than trying to add just the ones that are needed (and also it allows readers to bookmark any line). For example, in Act 1 scene 1: there are are 157 lines, of which 99 (63%) have some kind of apparatus.
I proof-read the entire text, correcting around 600 proofing and formatting errors (and finding many errors in the original printing; see below). This sounds quite lot, but the project was so old that it bypassed one of the proof-reading rounds, and it was a very difficult text to proof because of the size of the critical apparatus, the 17th century spelling, the need to preserve the many printer’s errors and idiosyncracies of the 1631 text. To give an example, out of about 3,600 instances of long ‘s’ (ſ) in the text, the proof-readers missed (at least) 60, and wrongly converted (at least) two ‘f’s, for a false positive rate of 1 in 1800 and a false negative rate of 1 in 60.
As of 2011-02-17.
This section gives the justification for all changes to the text. Page numbers link to the high-resolution scans at the Internet Archive.
|025.png||xxvii||good Pug-Robin.’||‘good Pug-Robin.’||Missing opening quotation mark. Verified in Butler’s Hudibras, line 1415.|
|028.png||xxx||Non-dram Wks.||Non-dram. Wks.||Appears 21 times with the period, once without.|
|029.png||xxxi||Machiavelli’s||Macchiavelli’s||Herford spells the name consistently with two ‘c’s; verified in Studies in the Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century, pp. 310–311.|
|083.png||5||1692 f.||1692, f.||Appears 49 times with comma, twice without.|
|090.png||12||1692 f.||1692, f.||See above.|
|094.png||16||36 SN.||37 SN.||Sidenote (“Ingine hath won …”) given at line 37.|
|097.png||19||2 SN.] gone. [Exit Engine.]||2 SN.] gone. [Exit Engine.] G||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 27.|
|100.png||22||63 th’art 1641,||62 th’art 1641,||“th’art” makes sense as a variant of “th’are” on line 62, but not of anything on line 63.|
|100.png||22||SN.||63 SN.||Consequence of the above correction.|
|117.png||39||84 hs] his||83 hs] his||‘hs’ appears on line 83.|
|118.png||40||130 Mrs. Fitz. [aloud]||129 Mrs. Fitz. [aloud] G||Insertion at line 129, not 130. Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 56.|
|118.png||40||131 SN. om. G||130 SN. om. G||Sidenote (“Shee thinkes her huſband watches.”) given at line 130.|
|129.png||51||23 SN. om||23 SN. om.||Appears 148 times with the period, once without.|
|135.png||57||7 ring. [Aside to Gilthead.||7 ring. [Aside to Gilthead. G||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 77.|
|137.png||59||47 lies.—Enter ||47 lies.—Enter ||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 79.|
|139.png||61||39, 43 SN.||39, 44 SN.||Sidenote (“and threatens him. …”) given at line 44.|
|139.png||61||57, 61 SN.||58, 61 SN.||Sidenote (“Mere-craft pretends …”) given at line 58.|
|141.png||63||104 Ever. [Aside to Meer.]||104 Ever. [Aside to Meer.] G||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 83.|
|152.png||74||(after ‘vp—’15)||(after ‘vp—’ 15)||Missing space.|
|156.png||78||59 him. Enter Lady ||59 him. Enter Lady ||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 103.|
|162.png||84||1 Wit. [Takes Manly aside.]||1 Wit. [Takes Manly aside.] G||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 109.|
|164.png||86||75 Wit||75 Wit.||Speaker’s name given with period on line 75; quoting the period is usual; cf. “76 Eit.” on this page.|
|189.png||111||2 [Exit Shackles.]||2 [Exit Shackles.] G||Missing edition. Verified in Gifford, p. 143.|
|189.png||111||SN. (after ‘fact.’ 13)||13 SN.||Variant reading for line 13 placed at line 2 with correct location in parenthesis.|
|203.png||125||Prol. How now||‘Prol. How now||Missing opening quote needed to match the closing quote following “again?”|
|215.png||137||ladies.’||ladies.||The closing quotation mark or apostrophe does not appear in Gifford, The works of Ben Jonson, p. 14.|
|224.png||146||m’acter||m’acater||The variant reading given on 091.png (page 13) is “13. m’acater W” and this can be verified in Whalley’s edition of The Devil is an Ass, p. 12. (Similarly, “Th’acater” can be verified in Whalley’s edition of the Sad Shepherd, p. 40.)|
|242.png||164||note 1. 6. 57||note 1. 6. 58||Note on ‘Pinnace’ at line 58.|
|242.png||164||note 4. 3. 202||note 4. 4. 202||Note on the head-coverings of ushers in scene 4.|
|246.png||168||in such that||is such that||Misprint.|
|247.png||169||section D. IV.||section C. IV.||No section D. IV.; Fleay’s theory is discussed in C. IV.|
|249.png||171||Gip.||2 Gip.||The “2” was interpreted by the printer as a line number and moved to the margin. In fact’s it’s part of the name of the character (the second gipsy). Verified in Gifford’s edition of The Gipsies Metamorphosed, p. 389.|
|258.png||180||for the bigness of the biggest price||for the bigness, of the biggest price||The comma after “bigness” is necessary for the sense, and is given by Browne: see Works, p. 319.|
|258.png||180||Johnson||Jonson||The quotation is from the first quarto of Jonson’s Every Man out of his Humor.|
|264.png||186||bulled nosegays’||‘bulled nosegays’||Missing opening quote.|
|267.png||189||1805, 4. 121.)||1805, 4. 121.||No matching opening parenthesis.|
|277.png||199||Bart. Fair 2. 1.||Bart. Fair 2. 1||Extra period.|
|277.png||199||4. 4. 31, 2 his valour||4. 5. 31, 2 his valour||The text for this note comes from 173.png (page 95), which belongs to scene 5.|
|285.png||207||note 3. 4. 31, 2||note 3. 4. 32||The note is only for line 32.|
|292.png||214||Aluagada, n. pr.||Aluagada, n. pr.||“Pr.” appears seven times in roman type and once in italics.|
|293.png||215||Attempt, … 4. 5. 7||Attempt, … 4. 6. 7||The word appears (as “attempting”) in scene 6 but not at all in scene 5.|
|295.png||217||Ceruse.||Ceruse,||Other glossary entries have a comma here.|
|297.png||219||Decimo sexto.||Decimo sexto,||Other glossary entries have a comma here.|
|298.png||220||Diuel. 5. 5. 20||Diuel. 5. 5. 21||The word appears on line 21 with this spelling (in the plural, “Diuels”). See 187.png (page 109).|
|305.png||227||Neale, n.||Neale, v.||Clearly a verb from its gloss (“to temper by heat”); also the OED gives no noun with this sense.|
|308.png||230||1. 8. 10.||1. 7. 10.||Act 1 only has 7 scenes; the word ‘proiects’ appears at 1. 7. 10.|
|309.png||231||L. <rosmarinus||<L. rosmarinus||Elsewhere the etymological derivation sign < is given before the language.|
|312.png||234||Time, … 3. 3. 97||Time, … 3. 3. 87||The word appears (in the form “timing”) on line 87 but not on line 97.|
|322.png||244||xxix ff.; xxxi.||xxix ff., xxxi.||Pages within the same subhead are separated by commas.|
|324.png||246||lxvi ff; lxx f.||lxvi ff., lxx f.||See above.|
|324.png||246||Masque of Queens, lxiv f.,||Masque of Queens, lxiv f.;||Different subheads are separated by semicolons.|
|325.png||247||lix ff.; lxxiii||lix ff., lxxiii||See above.|
|326.png||248||lxiii, son of||lxiii; son of||See above.|
|326.png||248||xxvi ff.; xxxiii||xxvi ff., xxxiii||See above.|
|327.png||249||l f.; 203.||l f., 203.||See above.|
|327.png||249||lxxvi; 173.||lxxvi, 173.||See above.|
|328.png||250||xxxvi; xxxix||xxxvi, xxxix||See above.|
Where there are inconsistencies between the text of the play and the text given in the notes, I can’t simply amend one to match the other, as I don’t know which is right. I added transcriber’s notes for these, and for a few other doubtful cases.
|037.png||xxxix||Like Will to Like||Thus once; “Like will to Like” four times.|
|077.png||lxxix||doggrel||“doggrel” twice (077.png, in a quote from Swinburne; 213.png, in a quote from Gifford) and “doggerel” twice (036.png, 042.png).|
|096.png||18||S r||Misprint for “Sir” or “Sr”; not mentioned in the variants.|
|128.png||50||13 Sir.] Sir— Ed.||“Ed.” perhaps means “edition” but the edition itself is missing. It’s neither Gifford nor Whalley. The end-note to this line calls attention to this variant reading, but it’s not clear why.|
|185.png||107||deferu’d||Misprint for “deſeru’d” but no variants given (there are no scans for this page at the Internet Archive, but Google Books confirms that the letter is an “f”. Modern editions give “s”.) Perhaps a misprint in the 1905 edition. Left as printed without comment.|
|199.png||121||after line 6||Perhaps “after line 7 in the Epilogue” is meant?|
|224.png||146||1. 3. 21 I’le hearken.||“harken” in the text (see 092.png).|
|234.png||156||1. 7. 16 The state||“State” in the text (see 107.png).|
|246.png||168||See Every Man out of his Humour||Spelled “Humor” seven times and “Humour” once, but this is in a quotation from Cunningham, who used this spelling.|
|246.png||168||2. 6. 21 and done the worst||“worſe” in the text (see 124.png), but see variants.|
|268.png||190||a nimble-witted and glib-tongu’d fellow||Stubbes spells these “nimble witted” and “glib-toungu’d”; see Anatomy, p. 77*.|
|270.png||192||Porcelletto Marino||“Porcelletto marino” in the text (see 163.png).|
|289.png||211||5. 8. 112 f. Οὶ μὸἰ, κακοδαίμων||“Οὶ μοὶ, κακοδαιμων” in the text (see 197.png).|
Here’s the Distributed Proofreaders project page for The Devil is an Ass. You can see from the project history that it’s been through five rounds: R1 (I think), P1, P3, F1, and F2. The output from F2 can be downloaded here, saved with Unix line endings (line feed only) as:
devil.0.txt[Output of F2, LF only]
Step 1. Rejoin split lines (automated)
[+]for † and
[||]for ‖ in the Glossary.
devil.1.txt[Split lines rejoined]
Step 2. Proofread (manual). The purpose of doing the automated edits in step 1 was to minimize the lengths of the diffs resulting from step 2. In theory you could diff
devil.2.txt and get a set of about 1,200 changes (about half proofing/formatting errors, half additional systematization) that could be applied by another post-processor (if the rest of my work were unworthy in some way).
||separating different readings of the same text in different editions, and
|||separating different variant readings on the same line of the play. This corresponds to a (not consistently applied) convention in the text.
[)]and etymological derivations
It was useful to consult the high-res scans at the Internet Archive when I was in doubt (except for 185.png, which is missing there). This led to a fully proofed text:
devil.2.txt[Proofed and corrected]
Step 3. Move footnotes (automated).
Step 4. Convert characters (semi-automated: some attention was needed for the Greek accents, and for the quotation marks).
devil.4.txt[Converted to Unicode]
Step 5. Format verse (manual). I marked up the various kinds of verse and other quoted material.
/*qfor quoted poetry (indent solidly).
/*sfor quoted poetry with a signature (indent solidly, no margin below).
/*Qfor quoted poetry within a paragraph (indent solidly, no text-indent after).
/*cfor centred material like the title page.
/*rfor right-aligned material like attributions for quotations.
/*zfor right-aligned material within a paragraph (no text-indent after).
/*Rfor right-aligned material like sidenotes in the play (these need to be somewhat farther right than attributions).
/*Nfor right-aligned page numbers that needs to be joined onto a preceding heading.
This yields the master copy:
Step 6. Generating plain text from the master copy is wholly automated (no further tweaking by hand).
^in abbreviations (see transcriber’s notes).
<sc>with ALL CAPS.
/* */ /# #/ -----File: [Footnote ]
And here’s the current state of the output:
devil-utf8.txt[Ready for feedback]
I tried to run gutcheck on this, but I inspected the first couple of hundred lines of output from the tool, and all were all false positives, so I decided it wasn’t worth it to go through the lot. I wrote my own gutcheck-like program with better summarization, and used that instead, catching some period/comma errors.
Step 7. Translate to HTML (automated)
<abbr class="k sc" title="Full name">(except that special handling is needed for Mrs. Fi. and her several variants.)
<abbr class=op id=op-P title="Folio page P">[P]</abbr>and line numbers with
<abbr class=p id=p-P title="Page P">P</abbr>.
<p class=fn id=f-A>and variant reading notes with
<p class=vn id=vn-A-B-C>.
/# #/) with
<p class=t>, quoted paragraphs with
<p class=q>and right-aligned material like signatures and attributions with
<p class=t id=n-A-B-C><b><a href="#l-A-B-C" title="Act A Scene B, line C">A. B. C</a>.
<p class=l id=l-A-B-C>and side notes with
()into ( ) and
Step 8. Add cross-references (semi-automated). There were several kinds of cross-reference to add that could not be fully automated, and had to be done with manual supervision:
Step 9. Final tweaks (manual). In practice I interleaved this with step 8.
I ended up marking each line of the play as a separate paragraph. This is not quite right from a semantic point of view: ideally each speech should be a paragraph. But it proved impossible to match the layout of the printed text using paragraphs for speeches, because of these requirements:
<p>line 1<br>line 2<br>line 3...because with that markup it is not possible to distinguish new lines of verse from wrapped lines.
I tried following the recipe for accessible footnotes given in the wiki, but it was a disaster when I tested it in Safari using VoiceOver: if the line number is given at the end of the paragraph but moved to the beginning using
position:absolute then VoiceOver gets stuck on it and cannot move to the next note. With the line number at the beginning of the paragraph the effect is unpleasant but at least VoiceOver can read through the list of variant readings. Similarly, I added many abbreviations but VoiceOver does not read them. Perhaps things are different in JAWS?
Innumerable, but notably:
foliono. Is this recipe correct?